“The Global Findex Database 2014: Measuring Financial Inclusion Around the World;” by Asli Demirguc-Kunt, Leora Klapper, Dorothe Singer and Peter Van Oudheusden; published by the World Bank; April 2015; 88 pages; available at http://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/globalfindex
The World Bank’s Global Findex Database 2014 indicates that between 2011 and 2014, 700 million people became accountholders for the first time at banks, via other financial institutions and with mobile money service providers, reducing the number of unbanked individuals by 20 percent. In this period, the percentage of adults with an account increased from 51 percent to 62 percent, with a 13 percentage-point increase in the number of accountholders in developing countries. The growth of account ownership was particularly strong in East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, each of which saw an increase of more than 10 percentage points. The authors note that while 185 million adults acquired new accounts in South Asia, there is an 18 percentage-point gender gap; 37 percent of women have an account compared with 55 percent of men. Account ownership in the East Asia and Pacific region increased by 25 percent, and 40 million people in Latin America and the Caribbean entered the financial system. Mobile money accounts drove the growth in overall account penetration from 24 percent to 34 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa .
“Is there discrimination against female entrepreneurs in formal credit markets in Nigeria? (Working Paper);” by Dr. Emmanuel O. Nwosu and Dr. Anthony Orji; published by The Partnership for Economic Policy; January 2015; 39 pages; available at http://portal.pep-net.org/documents/download/id/24277
Researchers from the University of Nigeria Nsukka working with the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) have found that businesses that are led by women, most of which are classified as micro or and small-scale, were receiving a disproportionately lower share of credit granted by Nigerian financial institutions. Though the results include no evidence of discrimination against women in formal credit markets in Nigeria, they indicate that micro and small-sized enterprises faced significantly greater credit constraints relative to medium-sized enterprises. The report states that “therefore, that women entrepreneurs are mostly involved in small and micro credit is nonetheless a big constraint to the growth of women enterprises.” The researchers also found that access to formal credit had a significant impact on the performance of enterprises. The report recommended that governments use intervention funds targeted at micro-and-small enterprises to help ease access to credit .
“Youth Savings Patterns and Performance in Colombia, Ghana, Kenya, and Nepal – YouthSave Research Report 2015;” published by The Center for Social Development at the George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St Louis; 2015; 223 pages; available at http://csd.wustl.edu/Publications/Documents/RR15-01.pdf
Based on a study on how 70,000 teenagers in Colombia, Ghana, Kenya and Nepal save money, the authors of this report found that youth younger than 13 were likely to save more than older youth, partly because they withdraw less than the older youth. They also found that direct outreach to locations such as schools and youth clubs by financial institutions increases account uptake. Colombia, where monthly deposits were part of a structured savings program, was found to have the highest frequency of deposits. In Nepal, youth receiving cash incentives saved significantly more than other Nepalese account holders. Permitting non-relatives such as teachers to be “co-signers” led to a significant number of new accounts being opened, although accounts that had parents or guardians as co-signers had higher savings. About 39 percent of youth were actively using their accounts during the last six months of the study. The authors found little difference in savings based on gender .
By Arpita Sarkar
Sources and Additional Resources:
 World Bank Press Release: “Massive Drop in Number of Unbanked,” http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2015/04/15/massive-drop-in-number-of-unbanked-says-new-report
 The Guardian: “New Research Unveils Path For Women Entrepreneurs,” http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/2015/03/new-research-unveils-path-for-women-entrepreneurs/
 NewsWise: “CSD Report Offers Insights Into How Young People Save in Developing Countries,” http://www.newswise.com/articles/csd-report-offers-insights-into-how-young-people-save-in-developing-countries
PAGE project Nigeria Homepage: https://www.pep-net.org/page-project-nigeria-pmma-12384
MicroCapital.org story, May 28, 2012, “MICROCAPITAL BRIEF: World Bank Group’s “Measuring Financial Inclusion: The Global Findex Database” Indicates 2.5 Billion Do Not Have Access to Formal Banking,” https://www.microcapital.org/microcapital-brief-world-bank-groups-measuring-financial-inclusion-the-global-findex-database-indicates-2-5-billion-do-not-have-access-to-formal-banking/
MicroCapital Universe Profile: World Bank Group, https://www.microcapital.org/microfinanceuniverse/tiki-index.php?page=The+World+Bank+Group
MicroCapital Universe Profile: YouthSave, https://www.microcapital.org/microfinanceuniverse/tiki-index.php?page=Youth+Save
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